In Egypt, production is concentrated in the Beni-Suef and Fayoum in Upper Egypt (around 70 miles south of Cairo). The crop is planted in October/ November, and a single harvest of the whole aerial part is made in June, when the plant is blossoming. The plant is therefore treated as an annual crop. In other areas the crop is maintained for 2 to 3 years, and 2 harvests are taken each year, in June/July and October/November, and at each harvest only the aerial part above 3 green budding eyes on the central stem is taken to allow regeneration after harvest.
It is estimated that the current crop is around 3,500 ha. The average oil yield is around 0.15% to 0.2%, giving production of around 60-70 kg/ha geranium oil. The oil is obtained by steam distillation of the leaves. Harvested material is generally left to wilt for 1-2 days before distillation. It is estimated that around 8,000 families are involved in the production of geranium oil; and if all others involved in the whole supply chain are included (middlemen, factory workers etc), together with dependents, some 30,000 to 35,000 people are dependent on the trade.